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Predictive Value

Answer the following questions: 1. Define the following groups of terms: a. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention b. Prepathogenesis and pathogenesis 2. How does screening for disease align with the three levels of prevention – primary, secondary and tertiary? 3. Define the following terms that are related to screening tests: a. Reliability and validity b. Sensitivity and Specificity c. Predictive value (+) and predictive value (-) 4. What are the most appropriate applications of mass screening and selective screening? Give one example each of a mass screening test and a selective screening test. 5. How could screening performed in conjunction with disease surveillance contribute to the alleviation of work-related hazardous exposures? 6. What is meant by overdiagnosis? 7. Conduct a web search for “whole body scans”. They are CT scans of the entire body and are promoted as a method for early detection of abnormalities. Using your own ideas, construct a list of the advantages and disadvantages of whole body scans and reach a conclusion. To what extent are whole body scans related to the issue of overdiagnosis? 8. Why is newborn screening important for public health practice? Give examples of programs for newborn screening. 9. What is a method used for developmental screening? At what ages is developmental screening most relevant? 10. Calculate the specificity, sensitivity, predictive value (+), and predictive value (-) using the following data: Disease Present Disease Absent Screening Test (+) 59 12 Screening Test (-) 18 189 11. Describe methods of screening for each of the following conditions: • o Breast cancer o Colon cancer o Type 2 Diabetes o Elevated lipid levels o Hypertension o HIV o Genetic screening (BRCA gene) Instructions: • The assignment must answer all the questions. • This assignment will be checked for plagiarism by SafeAssign. It must have less than a 20% match in order to be graded

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