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Evidence-Based Project

Part 4A: Critical Appraisal of Research

Conduct a critical appraisal of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected by completing the Evaluation Table within the Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template.

Part 4B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Based on the appraisal, in a2 page critical appraisal, suggest a best practice that emerges from the research you reviewed. Briefly explain the best practice.



*These levels are from the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice: Evidence Level and Quality Guide


Level I

Experimental, randomized controlled trial (RCT), systematic review RTCs with or without meta-analysis

Level II

Quasi-experimental studies, systematic review of a combination of RCTs and quasi-experimental studies, or quasi-experimental studies only, with or without meta-analysis

Level III

Nonexperimental, systematic review of RCTs, quasi-experimental with/without meta-analysis, qualitative, qualitative systematic review with/without meta-synthesis

Level IV

Respected authorities’ opinions, nationally recognized expert committee/consensus panel reports based on scientific evidence

Level V

Literature reviews, quality improvement, program evaluation, financial evaluation, case reports, nationally recognized expert(s) opinion based on experiential evidence

Note on Conceptual Framework

Researchers create theoretical and conceptual frameworks that include a philosophical and methodological model to help design their work. A formal theory provides context for the outcome of the events conducted in the research. The data collection and analysis are also based on the theoretical and conceptual framework.

As stated by Grant and Osanloo (2014), “Without a theoretical framework, the structure and vision for a study is unclear, much like a house that cannot be constructed without a blueprint. By contrast, a research plan that contains a theoretical framework allows the dissertation study to be strong and structured with an organized flow from one chapter to the next.”

Theoretical and conceptual frameworks provide evidence of academic standards and procedure. They also offer an explanation of why the study is pertinent and how the researcher expects to fill the gap in the literature.

Literature does not always clearly delineate between a theoretical or conceptual framework. With that being said, there are slight differences between the two


Durant, D. J. (2017). Nurse-driven protocols and the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections: A systematic review.American Journal of Infection Control,45(12), 1331-1341.

Meddings, J., Rogers, M.A., Macy, M., & Saint, S. (2010). Systematic review and meta-analysis: reminder systems to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections and urinary catheter use in hospitalized patients.Clinical Infectious Diseases,51(55), 550–560.

Scanlon, K. A., Wells, C. M., Woolforde, L., Khameraj, A., & Baumgarten, J. (2017). Saving lives and reducing harm: A CAUTI reduction program. Nursing Economics, 35(3), 134.

Tominaga, G. T., Dhupa, A., McAllister, S. M., Calara, R., Peters, S. A., & Stuck, A. (2014). Eliminating catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care unit: is it an attainable goal? The American Journal of Surgery, 208(6), 1065-1070.

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